For many decades, open surgery has remained the only option for patients. On the one hand, this method seems to be the most reliable because it removes the stone from a renal sinus cavity or ureter as a whole. However, in practice, everything is much more complicated, as after access to the kidney, the surgeon makes a small incision in the pelvis and removes the calculus, but the calyx is accessed almost in the blind, so even this method poses a risk that small concrements may remain in the kidney. Therefore, open operations have greatest risk of complications. These include possible bleeding, inflammation, and more. The postoperative rehabilitation takes up to six months. Of course, when we choose between a patient’s life and a surgical risk, we have to operate, but modern urology has reached the progress when 97% of patients with urolithiasis can be treated with significantly lower risks and a faster return to normal life.

For centuries, this tool has been the only way to solve the problem of urolithiasis

However, the most severe cases of renal and ureteral pathology associated with purulent processes and complications often require only radical surgical treatment, which could be successfully provided only by highly qualified urologists.